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RC恍神沒關係 筆記教給你




Researchers studying how genes control animal behavior have had to deal with many uncertainties. In the first place, most behaviors are governed by more than one gene, and until recently geneticists had no method for identifying the multiple genes involved. In addition, even when a single gene is found to control a behavior, researchers in different fields do not necessarily agree that it is a “behavioral gene.” Neuroscientists, whose interest in genetic research is to understand the nervous system (which generates behavior), define the term broadly. But ethologists—specialists in animal behavior—are interested in evolution, so they define the term narrowly. They insist that mutations in a behavioral gene must alter a specific normal behavior and not merely make the organism ill, so that the genetically induced behavioral change will provide variation that natural selection can act upon, possibly leading to the evolution of a new species. For example, in the fruit fly, researchers have identified the gene Shaker, mutations in which cause flies to shake violently under anesthesia.

讀者可看到筆者把人名、數數(In the first place)、順向詞(In addition、For example)、轉折詞(But)、態度詞(insist)都放上醒目提示色彩,筆者腦海中會特別注意這些跟「觀點」、「方案(法)」相關的字詞,而這些字詞可以做為筆記的區塊,並結合簡寫與符號,同時將人名都大寫表示來完成有效筆記。以這段為例,筆者可以快速寫下:

主:Res…how genes control ani behav…uncertainties

1. most behav are governed by > 1 gene

2. Geneticists X method à identify 多 genes invol

順:1 gene for 1 behav /= behav gene

Neurosci define the term broadly

逆:Ethol define the term narrowly

Ethol:muta in a behav gene 改 1 behav & not merely organism ill à the behav change à vari (natur select) à the evol of a new species

EX:fruit fly…gene Shaker(muta (shake under anes))


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